Breaking into an Android password manager – Theory

For some time now I’ve been wanting to research more deeply about the internals of Android. Until now, though, this was just a sentiment. Then, a couple of weeks ago I’ve finally managed to replace my iPhone for an Android phone, and that was the final motivator for me to actually get into learning more about the inner workings of the Linux-based OS.

Now, I just had to pick an actual task for digging into. The Dalvik VM is certainly one of the most innovative and advertised technical details about the OS, so something around it would be a nice start.. some kind of bytecode fiddling perhaps, but what? Luckily, even without trying too hard, I eventually stumbled upon an interesting case for researching upon.

The “victim” of this research is the application gbaSafe version 1.1.0a, which claims to protect user passwords using unbreakable algorithms (how’s that for a hint of a Snake oil case?).

Before we get into some hacking, let’s see some words on the software security by the author himself, and then render some analysis on conceptual issues on it:

The confidential data can only be decrypted if the master key is known. You should choose a long key (at least 16 characters) with mixed case and unreadable text. Of course you cannot enter this key each time you want to access the confidential data, so it is stored in the user settings encrypted with a shorter key (4 to 6 digits) and normally you only have to enter this unlock key. Theoretically it is possible to try all possible values (brute force attack), but then you must use another program, since gbaSafe deletes the encrypted master key from the user settings when you enter the unlock key wrong three times repeatedly, and then you must enter the master key. If you wrote a program to decrypt the master key, you would have to know the algorithm used, the salt bytes and iteration count (used to augment the short unlock key), which are very hard to extract from the binary program module gbaSafe.

If you have some security background, I’m sure that by now you’re already counting the issues on this single paragraph.

The most obvious issue is the fact that there’s a “strong key” and a “weak key”, and the strong key is encrypted with the weak one. This is a very common cryptography sin, as would say my friend and coworker Andreas Hasenack (a security researcher himself). A security system is only as secure as its weakest spot. It obviously makes little difference for an attacker if he has to attempt decrypting a master key or the actual data, since decrypting the master key will give access to the data.

Then, it mentions en passant that the software enforces the use of digits for the weak key. This ensures that the weak key is really weak! Four digits is basically ten thousand attempts, which is absolutely nothing for nowadays’s hardware. This number would move up to about 15 million by simply allowing upper and lowercase letters as well (which isn’t great either, but a few orders of magnitude never hurt in this scenario).

It follows up encouraging people to think that it’s actually hard to figure the algorithm and other implementation details. Considering that there’s absolutely nothing preventing people from getting their hands in the implementation itself, this is in fact asserting that the security mechanism is based on the ignorance of the attacker. Counting on the ignorance of people is bad at all times, and in a security context it’s a major error.

There’s a final security issue in this description which is a bit more subtle, but further analysis on the logic used leaves no doubt. In cryptography, the salt is supposed to increase the work needed in a brute force attack by strengthening the number of bits of the actual passphrase, in a case where the salt is actually unavailable, or at least prevent that a single large word dictionary can be used to attack several encryptions or hashes at once, in a case where the salt is known but variable. In the latter case, it helps because encrypting a single key with two different salts must be done twice, rather than once, so it increases the computational task when attacking multiple items. A salt which is known and does not change across all processed items is worth pretty close to nothing.

So, indeed, considering the many security issues here, this isn’t something I’d store my passwords or credit card numbers on, and I suggest you don’t do it either.

In my next post on this topic I’ll actually implement a trivial brute force attack to prove that these issues are very real, and that, actually, it’s not even hard to break into a security system like this.

The application author has been contacted about this blog post, since he’ll likely want to fix some of these issues.

5 thoughts on “Breaking into an Android password manager – Theory

  1. ben

    I am interested then as to what the best password manager for android would be then? Google Secrets, KeePassDroid, SplashID, etc.?

    Thanks for pointing this out either way and hope the Hero is treating you well.

  2. gbrors

    I’ve changed the program so that by default no key is stored in any way, but the user must enter the long master key when starting the program (the short unlock key is still an option for people like myself that prefer ease of use to absolute security, guessing that normal thieves would not invest much time trying to get my secrets with brute force attacks). So if the user chooses a good master key and doesn’t use the optional unlock key, then the secrets are really unbreakable (with AES-256). The version 1.1.1 will be published on Sunday.

  3. Pingback: Breaking into an Android password manager – Practice « Labix Blog

  4. Gustavo Niemeyer Post author

    It’s good to know that some of the issues are being fixed. That said, these comments above just reinforce my worries about the application, unfortunately.

    Unbreakable algorithms, dumb thieves, associating the use of good passwords with “absolute” security (it’s some security at all, really)…

    I can’t provide more insight than I already did in these couple of posts at this point, but I do recommend taking a step back and researching a bit more about security before exposing your name next to a security-oriented software which you’re selling people.

  5. Sam

    I’ve tried Passman Password Manager and I find it great. I like the user interface, very clean and nice. It’s simple to use and very intuitive. In my opinion it’s worth a try.

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